Authors: Vinay Mahajan, S Nagarajan, Manoj Srivastav ,Vineet Kumar and N V P R Ganga Rao
Author: Dr Vinay Mahajan, Email: email@example.com
Directorate of Wheat Research, P O Box 158, Karnal, Haryana,
advantage of commercial heterosis in hybrids over the best check is exploited in
many cross-pollinated crops as well as self-pollinated crops such as corn, pearl
millet, sorghum, sunflower, cotton, pigeon pea, rice and a number of vegetable
crops for commercially important characters.
a. In early 1970’s when tall parents were used, the hybrids had excessive biomass production and were too tall.
The hybrids produced by hand pollination on emasculated ears were grown in high
input managed fields with few replications hence the real yield potential of
commercial hybrids was still questioned.
Due to limited number of tests and paucity of information on genotype x
environment interaction, commercial hybrids were not always the best.
limitations can be overcome by developing simple and perfect methodology for
producing large number of out cross seed for large number of cross combinations
and evaluating them for their per se performance
over a range of environmental conditions. The revolutionary chemical
formulations like CH 9701, CH 9708, CH 9832 etc.. may simplify hybrid seed
production in wheat. More than 35 chemicals with diverse group of structural
families have been patented as potential CHAs (Lucken and Johnson 1988).
is one of the most systematically evolved crops at national and international
level, wherein there is extensive introgression of one gene pool into another
gene pool in different wheat based agro-climatic zones, still maintaining their
own identity. At present the success of hybrids not only depends upon the
exceptional specific combining ability but also to the suitability to CHAs based
methodology for hybrid seed production.
issues in identification of heterosis can be addressed through components like
Matching the yield components to achieve yield maximization in hybrids
Diversity in parental lines
Hybrid x environment interaction
Use of other characters like disease resistance, quality as a
pre-requisite to develop superior hybrids
Exploring the advantage of allopolyploidy in wheat
high yielding hybrids although several yield components appear to be important
in determining grain yield (Liver and Heyne, 1968), the role played by the
number of spikelets per spike appeared important (Borghi et al 1988). The kernel weight tented to be higher in hybrids but
this does not contribute significantly to increased yields (Borghi et
al 1988). A positive association was observed between grain yield and
harvest index for the best combinations (Sinha and Khanna 1975). It was
suggested that hybrids perform better because of their superior capacity in
producing and partitioning biomass. The high grain yield of hybrids was
associated with an increase of plant height while the harvest index was slightly
higher than found for varieties (Edward et al 1980).
are generally intermediate to the parents in flour yield, dough properties and
baking quality (Johnson and Schmidt 1968; Bequette and Fischer 1980). The wheat
hybrids producing large amount of dry matter compared to their parents exhibited
a positive correlation between protein content and total biomass (Corbellini and
Borghi 1985; Borghi et al 1986) which
suggest that high protein content in hybrids may be partly due to the enhanced
source. Edwards (1987) who analysed several hybrids from hard x soft red wheat
crosses, emphasized the necessity to use parents with very strong mixing
properties to offset the soft wheat effects and concluded that complementation
for quality characters does appear to be the main advantage offered by the
hybrid genotypes. Perenzin et al (1992)
observed that some hybrids derived from crosses between low quality-high
yielding cvs. and high quality-low yielding cvs. revealed a yield level
approaching highest yield cvs. coupled with a bread-making quality corresponding
to the first class of the Italian market (W>250, P/L<1). Borghi and
Perenzin (1994) reported that hybrid Maestra x Golia was not only statistically
at par for yield and agronomically superior to the best check Eridano due to
reduced plant height, but also had superior grain quality which represents a 30%
higher selling price. Grain and bread making quality characters (protein and SDS
sedimentation) were generally not adversely affected in the hybrids and depends
on the parental material (Cukadar et al 1997).
The present literature revealed that a satisfactory bread making properties
combined with high yields can be obtained with at least first generation of
hybrids. Parental lines having superior quality parameters when combined with
genetically diverse high yielding superior ideotype may result in hybrid
combinations which may be superior in economic yield or quality over the best
check. No information is traceable on the effect of allopolyploidy on heterosis
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